is a city in the northern part of Gauteng Province, South Africa. It is one of the country's three capital cities, serving as the executive (administrative) and de facto national capital; the others areCape Town, the legislative capital, and Bloemfontein, the judicial capital. Pretoria is sometimes regarded as being divided into three sections: west, east and north, relative to the central business district. Pretoria is contained within the City of Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality as one of several constituent former administrations (among which also Centurion and Soshanguve). Pretoria itself is sometimes referred to as "Tshwane" due to a long-running and controversial proposed change of name, which has, as of 2014, yet to be decided.
Pretoria in South Africa is popularly known as the Jacaranda City due to the thousands of Jacaranda trees planted in its streets, parks and gardens..
on the other side of the boerewors curtain
From the top, left corner clockwise:Pretoria CBD skyline, Front view of the Union Buildings, Voortrekker Monument, Administration Building of the University of Pretoria, Church Square, Loftus Versfeld Stadium and the Palace of Justice.
|Nickname(s): Jacaranda City|
|Motto: Præstantia Prævaleat Prætoria (May Pretoria Be Pre-eminent In Excellence)|
Coordinates: 25°44′46″S 28°11′17″E
The Southern Transvaal Ndebele occupied the river valley, which was to become the location of the city of Pretoria, by around 1600..
During the difaqane in Natal, another band of refugees arrived in this area under the leadership of Mzilikazi. However, they were forced to abandon their villages in their flight from a regiment of Zulu raiders in 1832.
Pretoria itself was founded in 1855 by Marthinus Pretorius, a leader of the Voortrekkers, who named it after his fatherAndries Pretorius. The elder Pretorius had become a national hero of the Voortrekkersafter his victory over the Zulus in the Battle of Blood River. Andries Pretorius also negotiated the Sand River Convention (1852), in which Britain acknowledged the independence of the Transvaal. It became the capital of the South African Republic (ZAR) on 1 May 1860. The founding of Pretoria as the capital of the South African Republic can be seen as marking the end of the Boers' settlement movements of the Great Trek.
During the First Boer War, the city was besieged by Republican forces in December 1880 and March 1881. The peace treaty which ended the war was signed in Pretoria on 3 August 1881 at the Pretoria Convention.
The Second Boer War (1899 to 1902) resulted in the end of the Transvaal Republic and start of British hegemony in South Africa. During the war, Winston Churchill was imprisoned in the Staats Model School in Pretoria but escaped toMozambique. The city surrendered to British forces under Frederick Roberts on 5 June 1900 and the conflict was ended in Pretoria with the signing of the Peace of Vereeniging on 31 May 1902.
The Pretoria Forts were built for the defence of the city just prior to the Second Boer War. Though some of these forts are today in ruins, a number of them have been preserved as national monuments..
Pretoria is situated approximately 55 km (34 mi) north-northeast of Johannesburg in the north-east of South Africa, in a transitional belt between the plateau of the Highveld to the south and the lower-lying Bushveld to the north. It lies at an altitude of about 1,339 m (4,393 ft) above sea level, in a warm, sheltered, fertile valley, surrounded by the hills of the Magaliesberg range.
The city has a humid subtropical climate with long hot rainy summers and short cool dry winters. The average annual temperature is 18.7 °C (65.7 °F)..This is rather high considering its relatively high altitude of about 1339 metres and is due mainly to its sheltered valley position, which acts as a heat trap and cuts it off from cool southerly and south-easterly air masses for much of the year. Rain is chiefly concentrated in the summer months, with drought conditions prevailing over the winter months, when frosts may be sharp. Snowfall is an extremely rare event; snowflakes were spotted in 1959, 1968 and 2012 in the city, but the city has never experienced an accumulation in its history. During a nationwide heatwave in November 2011, Pretoria experienced temperatures that reached 39 °C (102 °F), extraordinarily unusual for that time of the year. Similar record-breaking extreme heat events also occurred in January 2013, when Pretoria experienced temperatures exceeding 37 °C (99 °F) on several days. The all-time high recorded in Pretoria was 42 °C (108 °F) on 25 January 2013.